Sinusitis Overview

Sinusitis affects 37 million people each year (1,2), making it one of the most common health problems in the U.S. It is more prevalent than heart disease and asthma and has a greater impact on quality of life than chronic back pain or congestive heart failure. (3)

When you have acute or chronic sinusitis, the mucous membranes of your nose, sinuses and throat become inflamed, possibly from a pre-existing cold or allergies. Swelling obstructs the sinus openings and prevents normal mucus drainage, causing mucus and pressure to build up. Symptoms include: drainage of a thick, yellow or greenish discharge from the nose or down the back of the throat; nasal obstruction or congestion; tenderness and swelling around the eyes, cheeks, nose and forehead; and/or a reduced sense of smell and taste.

Types of Sinusitis

Depending on the duration of the symptoms, it can be classified into one of several types:

  • Acute (less than 4 weeks)
  • Subacute (4-12 weeks)
  • Chronic (more than 12 weeks)

If you experience 4 or more episodes of acute sinusitis per year, you could have Recurrent Acute Rhinosinusitis.

Chronic Sinusitis Symptoms

A Look into the Sinuses

The sinuses are hollow spaces in the skull (i.e. the frontal, ethmoid, sphenoid and maxillary) which serve to lighten the skull and give resonance to the voice. The purpose of the sinuses, which open into the nasal cavity, is to generate mucus to keep the nose from drying out during breathing and to trap unwanted materials so that they do not reach the lungs.

Each sinus has an opening that allows mucus to drain – this drainage is essential to keeping your sinuses working well and you healthy. Anything that obstructs that flow may cause a buildup of mucus and lead to a sinus infection.

Facts About Sinusitis

  • Sinusitis affects approximately 14% of the adult U.S. population. (4)
  • Sinusitis affects 17% of women and 10% of men each year. (4)
  • Chronic sinusitis (not including acute sinusitis) results annually in an estimated 7 million physician office visits. (1,5)
  • Direct healthcare expenditures due to sinusitis costs are well over $8 billion each year. (6)
  • Total restricted activity days due to sinusitis are over 58 million per year. (6)
  • At least 20% of chronic sinusitis patients are not successfully treated with medical therapy. When medical management methods are not enough to relieve patients’ symptoms, sinus surgery may be recommended. (7)

Sinusitis treatment includes medical and natural therapy, as well as sinus surgery. An Ear, Nose and Throat doctor (ENT doctor) can diagnose acute or chronic sinusitis and determine the best treatment plan.

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Sources

  1. Benninger, M. et al. Adult chronic rhinosinusitis: Definitions, diagnosis, epidemiology, and pathophysiology. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2003; 129S: S1-S32.
  2. Lusk R, Bothwell MR, Piccirillo J. Long-term follow-up for children treated with surgical intervention for chronic rhinosinusitis. Laryngoscope 2006; 116:(12) 2099-2107.
  3. Gliklich RE, Metson R. The health impact of chronic sinusitis in patients seeking otolaryngologic care. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1995 Jul; 113(1):104-9.
  4. Pleis JR, Lethbridge-Çejku M. Summary health statistics for U.S. adults: National Health Interview Survey, 2006. National Center for Health Statistics. Vital Health Stat 10(235). 2007.
  5. Bhattacharyya N. Clinical and symptom criteria for the accurate diagnosis of chronic rhinosinusitis. Laryngoscope 2006; 116(Suppl 110):1-22
  6. Ray, N., et al. Healthcare expenditures for sinusitis in 1996: Contributions of asthma, rhinitis, and other airway disorders. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1999; 103: 408-414. (Inflation Adjusted as per CPI to 2010 dollars.)
  7. Hamilos, D. Chronic sinusitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2000; 106: 213-227; Stankiewicz, J., et al,. Cost Analysis in the Diagnosis of Chronic Rhinosinusitis. Am J Rhinol 2003;17(3): 139-142; Subramanian, H., et al. A Retrospective Analysis of Treatment Outcomes and Time to Relapse after Intensive Medical Treatment for Chronic Sinusitis. Am J Rhinol 2002; 16(6): 303-312; Hessler, J., et al. Clinical outcomes of chronic rhinosinusitis in response to medical therapy: Results of a prospective study. Am J Rhinol 2007; 21(1): 10-18; Lal, D., et al. Efficacy of targeted medical therapy in chronic rhinosinusitis, and predictors of failure. Am J Rhinol Allergy 23, 396-400, 2009.

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